top of page

miagisterioum Group

Public·16 members
Luke Torres
Luke Torres

The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II: An Innovative and Influential Study by Fernand Braudel



# Fernand Braudel: The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II - Introduction - Who was Fernand Braudel and what was his contribution to history? - What is the main thesis of his book The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II? - How did he write this book and what sources did he use? - The Longue Durée: The Mediterranean as a Geographical and Historical Unit - What is the concept of the longue durée and how does Braudel apply it to the Mediterranean? - How does Braudel describe the physical features, climate, flora, fauna, and human activities of the Mediterranean region? - How does Braudel trace the historical evolution of the Mediterranean from ancient times to the 16th century? - The Conjunctures: The Social and Economic Structures of the Mediterranean - What is the concept of the conjunctures and how does Braudel analyze the social and economic structures of the Mediterranean? - How does Braudel compare and contrast the different regions, cultures, religions, and civilizations of the Mediterranean? - How does Braudel examine the trade, production, consumption, and exchange networks of the Mediterranean? - The Événements: The Political and Military Events of the 16th Century - What is the concept of the événements and how does Braudel narrate the political and military events of the 16th century? - How does Braudel focus on the role of Philip II of Spain and his rivals in shaping the Mediterranean world? - How does Braudel evaluate the impact of wars, diplomacy, piracy, revolts, and crises on the Mediterranean societies? - Conclusion - What are the main achievements and limitations of Braudel's book? - How has Braudel's book influenced later historians and scholars of the Mediterranean? - What are some of the current challenges and opportunities for studying the Mediterranean? Here is a draft of the article: # Fernand Braudel: The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II ## Introduction Fernand Braudel (1902-1985) was a French historian and leader of the Annales School, a group of scholars who pioneered a new approach to history that emphasized long-term social, economic, and cultural factors over short-term political and military events. One of his most famous works is The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, a monumental study of the history and geography of the Mediterranean region from ancient times to the 16th century. The main thesis of Braudel's book is that the Mediterranean is not only a sea, but also a historical unit that has its own distinctive features, structures, rhythms, and patterns. He argues that to understand the history of this region, one has to take into account three different levels or scales of time: - The longue durée (long duration), which refers to the slow and enduring changes that shape the physical environment and human activities over centuries or millennia; - The conjunctures (conjunctures), which refer to the medium-term fluctuations that affect the social and economic structures over decades or generations; - The événements (events), which refer to the short-term occurrences that involve political and military actions over years or months. Braudel wrote this book while he was a prisoner of war in Germany during World War II. He had started his research on his doctoral thesis on Philip II's foreign policy in Spain before he was captured by the Germans in 1940. He had no access to libraries or archives while he was in captivity, so he relied on his memory and notes to write his book. He also used various sources that he found in his prison camp, such as maps, atlases, books, magazines, newspapers, letters, and even cigarette packs. He finished his manuscript in 1946 and published it in two volumes in 1949. He later revised and expanded it into three volumes in 1966. ## The Longue Durée: The Mediterranean as a Geographical and Historical Unit The concept of the longue durée is one of Braudel's most original contributions to historiography. He uses it to analyze how geography shapes history by creating a stable framework for human activities. He argues that the Mediterranean is a coherent geographical and historical unit that has its own climate, landscape, resources, and population. He describes the Mediterranean as a "world apart", a "thousand things in one", and a "complex of seas". Braudel divides the Mediterranean into three main zones: - The western Mediterranean, which includes the Iberian Peninsula, the Maghreb, and the western islands; - The central Mediterranean, which includes Italy, the Balkans, Greece, Turkey, and the eastern islands; - The eastern Mediterranean, which includes Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and the Levant. He then examines the physical features of each zone, such as the mountains, plains, coasts, rivers, lakes, and islands. He also studies the climate of the Mediterranean, which he characterizes as a "seasonal rhythm" that alternates between hot and dry summers and mild and wet winters. He explains how this climate affects the flora and fauna of the region, as well as the agricultural production and consumption patterns of the people. He also explores how human activities have modified the environment over time, such as deforestation, irrigation, terracing, and urbanization. Braudel traces the historical evolution of the Mediterranean from ancient times to the 16th century. He shows how different civilizations have emerged and interacted in this region, such as the Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Byzantines, Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, and Europeans. He also shows how different religions have spread and coexisted in this region, such as Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and various sects and cults. He argues that despite the diversity and complexity of the Mediterranean world, there is a common thread that unites it: the sea. He claims that the sea is the main factor that connects and separates the peoples of the Mediterranean. He says that the sea is both a "route" and a "barrier", a "link" and a "frontier", a "bridge" and a "wall". ## The Conjunctures: The Social and Economic Structures of the Mediterranean The concept of the conjunctures is another key element of Braudel's historiography. He uses it to analyze how social and economic structures change over time by responding to external or internal stimuli. He argues that these structures are not fixed or static, but rather dynamic and flexible. He says that they are subject to cycles of growth and decline, expansion and contraction, stability and crisis. Braudel compares and contrasts the different regions of the Mediterranean in terms of their social and economic structures. He identifies four main types of regions: - The core regions, which are the most developed and prosperous areas that dominate trade and production; - The intermediate regions, which are the areas that connect or mediate between the core regions and other areas; - The peripheral regions, which are the less developed and poorer areas that depend on or supply the core regions; - The marginal regions, which are the isolated or remote areas that have little or no contact with other areas. He then examines how these regions differ in their cultures, religions, civilizations ## The Événements: The Political and Military Events of the 16th Century The concept of the événements is the last and least important level of Braudel's historiography. He uses it to narrate the political and military events of the 16th century, which he considers as mere "surface disturbances" that have little or no impact on the deeper structures of history. He argues that these events are often unpredictable, contingent, and ephemeral. He says that they are "the ephemera of history; history, in a hurry, skipping over the years". Braudel focuses on the role of Philip II of Spain and his rivals in shaping the Mediterranean world in the 16th century. He portrays Philip II as a devout, diligent, and ambitious monarch who inherited a vast empire from his father Charles V. He says that Philip II's main goals were to defend Catholicism against Protestantism, to maintain his hegemony over Europe, and to expand his influence over the Mediterranean and the New World. He says that Philip II faced many challenges and enemies, such as the Ottoman Empire, France, England, the Netherlands, and his own rebellious subjects. Braudel evaluates the impact of wars, diplomacy, piracy, revolts, and crises on the Mediterranean societies in the 16th century. He shows how these events affected trade, production, consumption, exchange, prices, population, migration, culture, and religion. He also shows how these events revealed the strengths and weaknesses of each region and civilization. He argues that despite the violence and turmoil of this period, the Mediterranean world remained resilient and adaptable. He says that "the Mediterranean has always lived on its contradictions, on its contrasts". ## Conclusion Braudel's book is a masterpiece of historical scholarship and writing. It is a comprehensive, innovative, and influential study of the Mediterranean region and its history. It combines rigorous research, vast erudition, vivid description, and original analysis. It challenges conventional views of history and offers new perspectives on historical phenomena. It is a work of both science and art. However, Braudel's book is not without its limitations and criticisms. Some of them are: - His book is too long, dense, and complex for some readers; - His book is too focused on material factors and neglects ideological, cultural, and psychological factors; - His book is too deterministic and structuralist and ignores human agency and contingency; - His book is too Eurocentric and Orientalist and overlooks the diversity and complexity of non-European civilizations; - His book is too outdated and superseded by later research and discoveries. Despite these limitations and criticisms, Braudel's book remains a classic and a reference for historians and scholars of the Mediterranean. It is a valuable source of information, insight, and inspiration for anyone interested in this region and its history. ## FAQs - Q: Who was Fernand Braudel? - A: Fernand Braudel was a French historian and leader of the Annales School who wrote The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. - Q: What is The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II about? - A: It is a study of the history and geography of the Mediterranean region from ancient times to the 16th century. - Q: How did Braudel write this book? - A: He wrote this book while he was a prisoner of war in Germany during World War II. He used his memory, notes, and various sources that he found in his prison camp. - Q: What are the three levels or scales of time that Braudel uses to analyze history? - A: They are: - The longue durée (long duration), which refers to the slow and enduring changes that shape the physical environment and human activities over centuries or millennia; - The conjunctures (conjunctures), which refer to the medium-term fluctuations that affect the social and economic structures over decades or generations; - The événements (events), which refer to the short-term occurrences that involve political and military actions over years or months. - Q: What are some of the main achievements and limitations of Braudel's book? - A: Some of them are: - Achievements: - It is a comprehensive, innovative, and influential study of the Mediterranean region and its history; - It combines rigorous research, vast erudition, vivid description, and original analysis; - It challenges conventional views of history and offers new perspectives on historical phenomena; - It is a work of both science and art. - Limitations: - It is too long, dense, and complex for some readers; - It is too focused on material factors and neglects ideological, cultural, and psychological factors; - It is too deterministic and structuralist and ignores human agency and contingency; - It is too Eurocentric and Orientalist and overlooks the diversity and complexity of non-European civilizations; - It is too outdated and superseded by later research and discoveries.




Fernand Braudel The Mediterranean Pdf Download

71b2f0854b


About

Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...

Members

bottom of page